The structural drawings come up with an original, preliminary sketch of the building to aid in compliance. It is undeniable that these construction diagrams will serve as an outlet for architects and engineers to understand their ideas clearly.
When beginning a construction project, drawings or diagrams are really important to have. Different types of drawings can be used for different purposes – drawing up an idea and detailing the measurements of one’s building parts.
Drawings prepared by structural engineers are critical in the design and construction of buildings. They are used to plan and design buildings, bridges, highways, tunnels, and other structures that require a lot of engineering. Below are the various types of structural drawings:
1. Site Plan
In construction, a site plan is an aerial view of the project that shows the primary building and any other constructions that are adjacent to it. This map can be used for laying out plans for changes to the building and understanding its scope.
Working in a 3D world, this drawing includes the topography of the building and also detects roads, pavements, etc.
2. Cross Section
Cross-sections are super useful for seeing all the different elements found in a building. It’s great for getting an overview of both what you can see and less visible features, like foundations and plumbing.
Another commonly used type of cross-section is that of a Wall cross-section. This type of cross-section is especially useful to get a view of both sides of the wall. Wall Cross-Section has a three-dimensional view of both sides of the wall.
3. Floor Plan
Floor plans are an important part of the construction process, regardless if you’re working on your own home or a big commercial project. To understand how space will be used, make sure to do a floor plan first.
A floor plan is a map of the space and illustrates the size, shape, and location of each room in a building. The rooms are often drawn on graph paper so they can be easily measured and drawn. It’s important to have a floor plan before you begin laying down any flooring.
A floor plan will help you visualize how the space will be used and where everything needs to go. Secondly, it’s important to have access to the plan for plumbing and electrical lines so they can be installed before construction starts.
An elevation gives an architect a better understanding of the orientation of a building & all the important aspects of its design. Check in wind direction and sun exposure to ensure that adequate shading is introduced in the right places. Other things to note include roof height, material entrance, and marker details.
1. Foundation Plan
Foundation plans refer to any kind of plan made for the foundations of a building. These are indispensable for understanding what is going on with the building- including dimensions and configuration details. They can be used for any floor in the building including ground floors, basements, and more.
A foundation is a structure that supports the weight of an above-ground structure, such as a building, with deep below grade earth. A foundation plan is based on the size of each floor and where it should be placed in relation to other floors. They can also be used for any room in the building including the basement.
2. Column Layout
The column design of a building is an important part of reinforcing the cardinal points and overall layout of the building. The column plan is divided floor-wise and delineates the exact size and location between each column.
Columns usually carry the weight of the building and are used as load-bearing supports or to create rhythmic patterns. A column is a structural element that stabilizes a structure and transmits loads to other columns, walls, or foundations.
If you need to understand building layouts and floor plans, drawings are a great way to do so.
3. Lintel Beam Layout
Lintel beams are a form of reinforcement that is placed above the doors and windows of a building. These provide strength to the part of the building (above these windows and doors) which could be weaker due to there being more load than needed at that point in time.
The large beams are typically placed close to the top of a building, providing support for an upper floor. These kinds of drawings will show you exactly where to place your lintels, what dimensions they’ll need to be, and the number of beams that are required on every floor.
4. Roof Slab Layout
If you’ve designed property with AutoCAD software, it may have come with some features for you to use to layout the building’s roof slabs. These slabs give a detailed account of all of the surfaces in the building that need precise changes, such as the floors or roof faces.
1. Electrical Drawings
Electrical drawings show electricians everything they need to know about every electrical connection, switch, fixture, outlet, fan, and light. These diagrams provide a way for them to understand all the wiring.
Electrical drawings allow them to know where all the wires lead and how they all connect. Electrical diagrams are usually classified by the type of system they are. This can be divided into three categories: building wiring diagrams, appliance wiring diagrams, and circuit diagrams. The most common type of wiring diagram is a building or electrical diagram.
This electrical drawing can also show how much load a piece of equipment can handle as well as information about the air conditioning/ventilation or heating/cooling system.
2. Plumbing Drawing
The plumbing plan, like the electrical diagram, shows all of the marks and locations for that building’s plumbing. This includes water pipes, sanitary pipes, drainage systems, etc. It may also include the position of the taps and other water outlets on every floor.
Without a plumbing plan, construction would be very complicated and messy with pipes running where they shouldn’t or out of place due to unexpected structural changes.
A lot of construction drawings are made for various purposes. The earlier stages (presentation drawings, floor plans, and site plans) need to be done first before construction begins. Later stage drawings (wiring diagrams, plumbing, and HVAC layouts) can be made during the middle-to-final stages of completion.
There are a lot of benefits to having these drawings near. Not only do they act as guiding principles for every construction worker, but they also provide supervisors and builders with an accurate representation of how the construction should be proceeding.